The Coffee Culture in the USA

It wasn’t until I moved to the US that I started drinking coffee regularly and became what they call in the Netherlands a ‘koffieleut’, which translates literally into ‘coffee socialite.’ Although the average European drinks more coffee per year than the average American, the cultural importance and its effects on the average European seems to me smaller than that on the average American. After all, coffee is a cultural obsession in the United States.

Chains with thousands of branches like Dunkin’ Donuts or Starbucks dominate US daily street life. Especially in the morning (90% of coffee consumed in the US is in the morning), millions of white foamy cups with boldly imprinted pink and orange logos bob across the streets in morning rush hour and on the train. Coffee drive-ins are a saving grace for the rushing army of helmeted and tattooed construction workers. During lunch break, men and women in savvy business suits duck into coffee shops.

Students chill out from early afternoon till late evening on comfy couches at coffee lounges around campus. Police officers clutch coffee cups while guarding road construction sites on the highway. In short, coffee drinkers in the United States can be found just about anywhere you go.

This mass-psychotic ritual causes Americans to associate Europe above all with cars that oddly do not contain cup holders (to an American this is like selling a car without tires), or with the unbelievably petite cups of coffee European restaurants serve, so small that my father-in-law had to always order two cups of coffee. It is my strongest conviction that the easily agitated and obsessed nature of the ‘New Englander’ can be blamed on the monster-size cups of coffee they consume. Not without reason is the word ‘coffee’ derived from the Arab ‘qahwa’ meaning ‘that which prevents sleep.’ Arabs have cooked coffee beans in boiling water since as far back as the 9th century and drank the stimulating extract as an alternative to the Muslims’ forbidden alcohol.

These days coffee is second only to oil as the most valuable (legally) traded good in the world with a total trade value of $70 billion. Interestingly, only $6 billion reaches coffee producing countries. The remaining $64 billion is generated as surplus value in the consumption countries. Small farmers grow 70% of world coffee production. They mainly grow two kinds of coffee beans: Arabica and Robusta. About 20 million people in the world are directly dependent on coffee production for their subsistence.

Table 1: production in 2002/3

country % 70% Arabica

30% Robusta

Brasil 42.03% Arab/Rob

Colombia 8.88% Arabica

Vietnam 8.35% Robusta

Indonesia 4.89% Rob/Arab

India 3.74% Arab/Rob

Mexico 3.54% Arabica

Guatemala 3.1% Arab/Rob

Uganda 2.53% Rob/Arab

Ethiopia 2.44% Arabica

Peru 2.24% Arabica

Table 2: consumption in 2001/2world consumption % kg per capita (2001)

USA 30.82% Finland 11.01

Germany 15.07% Sweden 8.55

Japan 11.47% Denmark 9.71

France 8.89% Norway 9.46

Italy 8.59% Austria 7.79

Spain 4.90% Germany 6.90

Great-Brittain 3.63% Switzerland 6.80

the Netherlands 2.69% the Netherlands 6.48

Although the consumption of coffee per capita in the world is decreasing (in the US alone it decreased from 0.711 liter in 1960 to 0.237 liter presently), world consumption is still increasing due to the population explosion. Considering that coffee consists of either 1% (Arabica), 2% (Robusta) or 4.5%-5.1% (instant coffee) caffeine, the average American consumes at least 200 to 300mg (the recommended maximum daily amount) of caffeine a day through the consumption of coffee alone.

The place I frequent to down a cup of coffee is the Starbucks in Stamford, Connecticut. The entrance can be found on the corner of Broad Street and Summer Street, to the left to the main public library with its plain pediment and slim Ionic columns. The location right next to the library harmonizes with Starbuck’s marketing plan. At the entrance of the coffee shop a life-size glass window curves around to the left, providing superb voyeuristic views of pedestrians on the sidewalk. As you enter, you step directly into the living room area with stacked bookshelves against the back wall. Velvet armchairs face each other with small coffee tables in the middle, creating intimate seating areas. The velvet chairs near the window are the prime seats, which people unfortunate to score a wooden chair prey upon. At the back of the long rectangular room is the coffee bar and a small Starbuck’s gift shop. There is a dark wooden table with electrical outlets suited for spreading out laptops and spreadsheets, dividing the living room area from the coffee bar.

Since I have been cranky for weeks I hesitate to order a regular black coffee. It is very easy to get cloyed with a favorite food or drink in the US because of the super-sized portions served. The smallest cup of coffee is a size ‘tall’ (12oz.=0.35l.), after which one can choose between a ‘grande’ (16oz.=0.5l.) and a ‘venti’ (20oz.=0.6l.). Half a liter of coffee seems a bit over the top, and it sounds absolutely absurd to my European mind. I finally end up choosing a ‘solo’ espresso.

Sitting in one of the booth-like seats against the back wall, unable to obtain a prime seat, I feign to read my book while eavesdropping on conversations around to me. Three middle-aged men sit in three ash gray velvet chairs and converse loudly. A vivid dialogue develops, exchanged with half roaring, half shrieking, laughter. They mock a colleague in his absence and then clench their brows in concern while discussing the teeth of one of the men’s daughter. Two African-American women sit at a small table opposite the reading-table in the murky light, one of them with a yellow headscarf with black African motifs. Close to the entrance, in the seating area next to the animated conversation, a vagabond is playing solitaire. One by one he places the creased cards with rounded backs over one another, as if he attempts to stick them together. He rendered a couple of dollars in exchange for a small coffee to feel, in the warmth of the front room, nostalgia for a cozy living room and relives a sense of intimacy of having your own house.

It’s a bright, sunny, early autumn day, a typical New England Indian summer. Sunbeams radiate through the coloring, flickering foliage, and throw a puzzle-shaped shadow into Starbuck’s window. Autumn’s hand turns her colorful kaleidoscopic lens. The green ash tree near the sidewalk resembles, with its polychrome colors, somewhat a bronze statue: its stem sulphur bronze, its foliage intermittently copper green and ferric-nitrate golden. On the other side of the cross walk the top of a young red oak turns fiery red. These are the budding impressions of the autumn foliage for which Connecticut is ‘world famous’ in the US.

In the world of marketing and entrepreneurship, Starbucks is a success story. It is one of those stories of ‘excellence’ taught as a case study at business school. Founded in 1971, it really began its incredible growth under Howard Schultz in 1985, and presently has 6,294 coffee shops. But what does its success really consists of? A large cup of coffee at Starbucks is much more expensive than at Dunkin’ Donuts: $2.69 compared to $3.40 for a Starbucks’ ‘venti’. But while Dunkin’ Donuts offers only a limited assortment of flavors like mocha, hazelnut, vanilla, caramel and cinnamon, you will find exotic quality beans at Starbucks like Bella Vista F.W. Tres Rios Costa Rica, Brazil Ipanema Bourbon Mellow, Colombia Nariño Supremo, Organic Shade Grown Mexico, Panama La Florentina, Arabian Mocha Java, Caffè Verona, Guatemala Antigua Elegant, New Guinea Peaberry, Zimbabwe, Aged Sumatra, Special Reserve Estate 2003 – Sumatra Lintong Lake Tawar, Italian Roast, Kenya, Ethiopia Harrar, Ethiopia Sidamo, Ethiopia Yergacheffe and French Roast. So Starbucks offers luxury coffees and high quality coffee dining, reminiscent almost of the chic coffee houses I visited in Vienna.

Every now and then, I grin shamefully and think back at my endless hesitation choosing between the only two types of coffee available in most Dutch stores: red brand and gold brand. Even up to this day I have no clue what the actual difference is between the two, apart from the color of the wrapping: red or gold. Not surprisingly, Starbucks appeals to the laptop genre of people: consultants, students, intellectuals, the middle class, and a Starbucks coffee is a white-collar coffee, while a Dunkin’ Donuts coffee is a blue-collar coffee. In Dunkin’ Donuts you will run into Joe the Plumber, Bob the barber, and Mac the truck driver. But what is it exactly, that attracts the white collared workers in the US to fall back into the purple velvet chairs?

I imagine their working days filled with repetitive actions and decisions within a playing field of precisely defined responsibilities. How many of the players in these fields get through the day with its routines for simply no other reason than being able to enjoy their daily 30 minutes-escape into the Starbucks intimacy where, for a brief moment in the day, you regain the illusion of human warmth and exotic associations of resisting the coldness of high finance?

For 15 minutes you fall back into the deep, soft pillow of a velvet chair and randomly, and alas how important is that moment of utter randomness, pull a book from the shelves. While, in the background, soothing tones resound of country blues, with its recognition of deep human suffering, a blaze of folk with the primary connection with nature and tradition, or of merengue reviving the passionate memories of adventure and love, you gaze out the window and ponder about that simple, volatile reflection in the moment, strengthened by the physical effect of half a liter of watery coffee that starts to kick in and the satisfaction of chewing your muffin, bagel, cake, brownie, croissant or donut.

It is, above all, that bodily ecstasy caused by a combination of caffeine, sugar and the salivating Pavlov effect. You remember the struggling musician behind the counter taking your order, the amateur poet as you pay her for the coffee and give a full dollar tip, feeling a transcendental bound in your flight from reality. You stare with a fastened throbbing of the first gulps of coffee at the advertisements and poems on the bulletin board, and dauntlessly you think: They are right, they are so right! and what do I care? Why should I care?

But then you look at your watch and notice you really have to run again. ‘Well, too bad, gotta go!’, or people will start gossiping for being so long away from your desk. And while you open the door, an autumn breeze blows in your face, the last tunes of the blues solo die out as the Hammond organ whispers: ‘I throw my troubles out the door, I don’t need them anymore’.

Coffee in the US is a subculture that massively floated to the surface of the consumer’s society. Starbucks is more than coffee, it’s more than just another brand on the market, it is a social-political statement, a way of perceiving how you would like to live, in other words it is a culture. Starbucks is the alternative to Coca-Cola and so much more than just coffee: it’s chocolate, ice-cream, frappuccino, travel mugs with exotic prints, cups and live music, CD’s, discounts on exhibitions and even support for volunteer work.

Have Some Fun – It’s Mardi Gras

Trying to fight the winter blues? What this challenging winter calls for is some fun, and nothing is more fun in February than a Mardi Gras party.

Mardi Gras has French roots. The first known Mardi Gras was celebrated in Louisiana by early French settlers in 1699. Throughout Louisiana’s history, political and social unrest and even war did not stop Mardi Gras celebrations. It later became known as Carnival and became a legal holiday in Louisiana in 1875.

With Mardi Gras’s French heritage, we thought it would be appropriate to pair this cuisine with French wines. Let’s see what works.

Wine Basics

The classic Mardi Gras dish is Jambalaya. With this hearty and spicy dish in mind, I chose Vouvray and Alsatian whites to pair with this dish. My concern was to find French white wines with sufficient body and fruitiness to stand up to this bold dish. Both work well and are worth a try.

Vouvray is an appellation or region of the Loire Valley of France. It is located on the western side of the country, between Paris to the north and Bordeaux to the south, and is along the Atlantic coast. Loire Valley is internationally famous for its whites made from Chenin Blanc grapes. Chenin Blanc wine can be complex, round and balanced, and offers wonderful acidity. This acidity makes this a very food friendly wine. This age-worthy wine is known for its pear, melon and apple notes.

In contrast, the Alsatian region of France is located in the northeast corner of the country on the border with Germany and makes, almost exclusively, white wines. The most important grapes are riesling, pinot gris, gewürztraminer and pinot blanc. Alsatian whites are famous for their acidity and bold fruit flavors, and are generally fermented in stainless steel tanks (so the true fruit flavors come through). I prefer the complexity, aging potential and bold flavors of riesling and gewürztraminer wines Both food friendly whites have lean, mineral characteristics. Riesling is also known for its peach and citrus notes while gewürztraminer offers honeysuckle, litchi nuts and gingerbread flavors.

Food Pairing
When developing your Mardi Gras menu, start with a pot of jambalaya on the stove. We recommend that you do not over spice this dish, as your guests can season to taste. Other dishes to consider include steamed crawfish, red beans and rice, sweet potato casserole, po’ boy sandwiches, a Mardi Gras tossed salad (for fun, add purple cabbage, shredded carrots and golden raisins to green lettuce, for a salad with classic Mardi Gras colors) and top this menu off with a King cake or the classic Bananas Foster.

There are two terms that you will find with Jambalaya – Cajun and Creole. Creole style Jambalaya is commonly called red jambalaya (because it contains tomatoes) and is more typical of what you will find in a restaurant. Cajun Jambalaya is more prevalent in the southern parts of Louisiana and is a brown color because of the lack of tomatoes. Both versions of Jambalaya include the “trinity” of vegetables – green pepper, onions and celery and are simple, tasty and traditional.

Easy Cajun Jambalaya with Fried Okra Garnish

1 ½ lbs Chicken – boneless breasts or thighs
Creole Seasoning
1 Tbsp Olive Oil
1 Cup Onion, diced
1 Cup Green Pepper, diced
1 Cup Celery, diced
1 lb Smoked or Andouille Sausage – sliced
2 cans French Onion Soup (10 ½ oz cans, undiluted)
1 can Chicken Broth (14 ½ oz)
1 can Beef Broth (14 ½ oz)
½ Tbsp Creole Seasoning
1 ½ cups Long Grain White Rice – uncooked
Hot Sauce – on the side

Optional Garnish

½ lb Fresh Okra – sliced in ¼” rounds
Cornmeal
Oil for frying

Season raw chicken with Creole seasoning. In a Dutch oven or large pot, sear chicken until golden brown but not completely cooked through. Remove from pot and let cool. Add a little additional oil to the pot if necessary. Sauté the vegetables until onions are translucent but not brown. Cut the chicken into bite size pieces. Add the chicken, sausage, all the liquid and the Creole seasoning to the pot. Bring to a boil. Reduce to a simmer and add the rice. Simmer uncovered for approximately 40 minutes or until the rice is cooked. For optional garnish, put okra in a large zip lock bag and add enough cornmeal to dust. Fry until crispy. Place fried okra on top of individual bowls of jambalaya.

To add some finishing touches, find some beads, masks and decorations in green, purple and golden colors. Have fun and let the good times roll.

Wine Picks (with suggested retail prices)*

Chateau Moncoutour Vouvray $14

Domaine des Aubuigieres $15

(Bernard Fouquet’s Vouvray)
Trimbach Riesling $18

Lorentz Gewurztraminer Reserve $19

Wine of the Month

2006 Chateau Moncontour Vouvray

Suggested retail price $14

This Vouvray is becoming more available and is recommended by local wine merchants as a good value wine. This Loire Valley white is made from Chenin Blanc grapes and offers mineral, lime and floral notes. While the 2006 vintage is not yet rated, the Wine Spectator gave a recent vintage 87 points.

Arranging Meetings and Conferences – Choosing the Right Venue

Booking a meeting venue or arranging a conference can often fall to receptionists, secretaries and PA’s, who may have little experience in events planning. There are many aspects to planning conferences and events, from finding the right venue, booking caterers, arranging accommodation, parking, PA systems and much more. It can seem a little overwhelming when you have the responsibility of ensuring that the event goes smoothly, and when you may get the blame if it doesn’t go to plan!

Confirming Delegate Numbers

How many delegates are expected at the event? If your company has run similar events previously, have a look at the average turnout to these past events. You will inevitably have some cancellations and no-shows, but depending on the type of event, the turnout could be 50% or even less.

As an events planner in a Leeds city centre hotel, I have organised many legal seminars for solicitors. These events run regularly and keep lawyers up-to-date with changes in the law. Events are free to attend and held on weekday evenings. Occasionally, the number of delegates who turn up to the event is less than half those who have booked – particularly during the winter when evenings are dark, cold and wet! Try to work out how many people you think will actually turn up – there is nothing worse than a room full of empty chairs or a table piled high with food for a handful of attendees.

Of course, for other types of events, attendance will be much higher. If delegates have paid for tickets to the event, for example, or if the event is an awards ceremony, a rare or specialist event.

Location

Once you have an idea of numbers, think about the ideal location. If you are organising a meeting for colleagues who all work in the same office, then a nearby hotel that they can all walk to would be ideal. However, if people are going to be travelling from around the country to your event, a location close to a train station, or near a motorway junction and with plenty of parking, would be more suitable.

Budget

The price of meetings venues can vary wildly, so ensure you have a budget before contacting any potential venues. If you are arranging catering, it is likely that this will be charged on a per-head basis. Meeting rooms may also be hired out by the hour, day or half-day. A day delegate rate (DDR) may be offered, and should include everything from room hire to catering and refreshments and sometimes an overnight stay.

Don’t forget, prices are often negotiable – particularly if your event is coming up soon. Any venue would prefer to have a discounted conference booked in rather than nothing at all.

Some days of the week are more popular than others, and if you choose a less popular day you may get a better deal. Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Thursdays are the most popular days for corporate events and meetings. If you are able to hold your event on a Monday or Friday, it may work out cheaper. However, there is a reason why these days are less popular, and you may get a lower turnout to your event if you choose a less convenient day. School holidays are also a quieter time for most meetings venues. Again, you may have a lower turnout if people are away on holiday or have booked time off work to take care of children.

Booking Agents

Most large cities will have booking agents who can send your enquiry to several different events at once and send you a summary of the prices and availability. This is a good way to save time if you are arranging an event in a city you do not know; or if you are simply overwhelmed with choices. Try contacting the tourist board or local council office to get in touch with agents. You can let them know the details of your event, the date and budget without having to repeat yourself to many venues over and over again.

Catering

This will often be taken care of by your chosen venue, who may have chefs or good relationships with local caterers. Think about when there will be breaks during the event, and what refreshments should be available. It’s a good idea to make sure water is on hand at all times. You may also be surprised at how many cups of tea and coffee delegates can go through at a day conference! Let the venue know the timings of your breaks, so they can make sure that tea, coffee, biscuits, cakes, bacon sandwiches – or whatever you choose – is ready and waiting.

Equipment

Provide your venue with a list of equipment required prior to the event. Venues may not have a supply of flipcharts, projectors or a PA system on site and might order the appropriate equipment from an external supplier. Ensure you have the pricing details for additional equipment too, as it may not be covered by the room hire charge or day delegate rate.

Final Preparations

It is a good idea to communicate with the venue the day before the event, to ensure that they are clear about your requirements, the number of expected attendees and the timings of the event. If it is going to rain, is there a set place for coats and umbrellas? Is there somewhere for delegates to wait comfortably if they arrive early, and will they be able to get a cup of tea? It is much easier to iron out any issues the day before than when you are surrounded by hungry/thirsty/squashed delegates!